Matthew Garrett (mjg59) wrote,

Booting with EFI

One of the ways in which EFI is *actually* better than BIOS is its native support for multiple boot choices. All EFI systems should have an EFI system partition which holds the OS bootloaders. Collisions are avoided by operating system vendors registering a unique name here, so there's no risk that Microsoft will overwrite the Fedora bootloader or whatever. After installing the bootloader the OS installer simply sets an NVRAM variable pointing at it, along with a descriptive name and (if they want) sets the default boot variable to point at that. The firmware will then typically provide some mechanism to override that default by providing a menu of all the configured variables.

This obviously doesn't work so well for removable media, where otherwise you'd have an awkward chicken and egg problem or have to force people to drop to a shell and run the bootloader themselves. This is handled by looking for EFI/boot/boot(architecture).efi, where architecture depends on the system type - examples include bootia32.efi, bootia64.efi and bootx64.efi. Since vendors have complete control over their media, there's still no risk of collisions.

Why do we care about collisions? The main reason this is helpful is that it means that there's no single part of the disk that every OS wants to control. If you install Windows it'll write stuff in the MBR and set the Windows partition as active. If you install Linux you'll either have to install grub in the MBR or set the Linux partition as active. Multiple Linux installations, more problems. It's very, very annoying to handle the multiple OS case with traditional BIOS.

This was all fine until UEFI 2.3 added section 3.4.1.2 of the spec, which specifies that in the absence of any configured boot variables it is permitted for the firmware to treat the EFI system partition in the same way as removable media - that is, it'll boot EFI/boot/bootx64.efi or whatever. And, if you install Windows via EFI, it'll install an EFI/boot/bootx64.efi fallback bootloader as well as putting one in EFI/microsoft.

Or, in other words, if your system fails to implement the boot variable section of the specification, Windows will still boot correctly.

As we've seen many times in the past, the only thing many hardware vendors do is check that Windows boots correctly. Which means that it's utterly unsurprising to discover that there are some systems that appear to ignore EFI boot variables and just look for the fallback bootloader instead. The fallback bootloader that has no namespacing, guaranteeing collisions if multiple operating systems are installed on the same system.

It could be worse. If there's already a bootloader there, Windows won't overwrite it. So things are marginally better than in the MBR days. But the Windows bootloader won't boot Linux, so if Windows gets there first we still have problems. The only solution I've come up with so far is to have a stub bootloader that is intelligent enough to scan the EFI system partition for any other bootloaders and present them as a menu, and for every Linux install to just blindly overwrite bootx64.efi if it already exists. Spec-compliant firmware should always ignore this and run whatever's in the boot variables instead.

This is all clearly less than optimal. Welcome to EFI.

Tags: advogato, fedora
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